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Training

Trust the Process

APQP Training Program

Advanced Product Quality Planning is the framework of procedures and techniques used to develop products. Test.

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DFMEA – FMECA Training Program

Design Failure Modes & Effects Analysis and Failure Modes, Effects & Criticality Analysis are a step-by-step approach to identify and...

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DRBFM Training Program

Design Review Based on Failure Modes is a focused approach of mitigating change risk within the product and process design....

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PFMEA Training Program

Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis is a step-by-step approach to identify and manage the risks of failures within the...

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PPAP Training Program

Production Part Approval Process is a standardized process in the automotive and aerospace industries that helps manufacturers and suppliers communicate...

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DFM/A Training Program

Design for Manufacturing and Assembly is a combination of two methodologies; Design for Manufacture, which means the design for ease...

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DMAIC Training Program

Lean Six Sigma – A structured and disciplined approach to making fact-based decisions that cover the DMAIC phases: Define; Measure;...

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DOE Training Program

Design of experiments (DOE) – provides a systematic method to determine the relationship between factors affecting a process and the...

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Reliability Engineering Training Program

Reliability Engineering describes a focused approach to complete Reliability Engineering methods and how they will benefit your organization

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ISO 26262 Training Program

Functional Safety describes how to implement a vehicle level functional safety program, create a HARA, and understand the interactions within...

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MSA Training Program

Measurement System Analysis is an experimental and mathematical method of determining how much the variation within the measurement process contributes...

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SPC Training Program

Statistical Process Control is a scientific visual method used to monitor, control and improve processes by eliminating special cause variation...

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FTA Training Program

Fault Tree Analysis is a systematic, deductive (top-down), graphical methodology for defining a single specific undesirable event and determining all...

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MFMEA / DFM M&T Training Program

Machine Failure Modes and Effects Analysis is a methodical approach for identifying all possible equipment failures in a manufacturing or...

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RCA Training Program

Root Cause Analysis – 8D is a methodical problem-solving process that covers the three common stages of correction: ⦁ Act...

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QSB Training Program

QSB will provide a summary of how to assess shop floor manufacturing systems. Training will include control of nonconforming products,...

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Poka-Yoke Training Program

Poka-yoke is a technique for avoiding simple human error in the workplace. Also known as mistake-proofing, goof-proofing, and fail-safe work...

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Process Awareness

Ability and knowledge to participate in  completing the FMEA Process

LEVEL 1

Competency

Ability and knowledge to lead a team in the FMEA Process

LEVEL 2

Proficient

Ability to teach and mentor Participants and Team Leads in the FMEA Process

LEVEL 3

Expert

Ability to lead an organization implementing FMEA

LEVEL 4

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DFM/A Training Program

Design for Manufacturing and Assembly is a combination of two methodologies; Design for Manufacture, which means the design for ease...

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PFMEA Training Program

Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis is a step-by-step approach to identify and manage the risks of failures within the...

Learn More »

DRBFM Training Program

Design Review Based on Failure Modes is a focused approach of mitigating change risk within the product and process design....

Learn More »

DFMEA – FMECA Training Program

Design Failure Modes & Effects Analysis and Failure Modes, Effects & Criticality Analysis are a step-by-step approach to identify and...

Learn More »

Please visit ReliatrainGov.com for more information about Government Services

PFMEA Training Program

Process Failure Modes and Effects Analysis is a step-by-step approach to identify and manage the risks of failures within the...

Learn More »

DRBFM Training Program

Design Review Based on Failure Modes is a focused approach of mitigating change risk within the product and process design....

Learn More »

DFMEA – FMECA Training Program

Design Failure Modes & Effects Analysis and Failure Modes, Effects & Criticality Analysis are a step-by-step approach to identify and...

Learn More »

Please visit ReliatrainGov.com for more information about Government Services

PPAP Training Program

Production Part Approval Process (PPAP)
Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP)

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COURSE DESCRIPTION

Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) is a valuable tool for establishing confidence in suppliers and their design and production processes. The documentation on the PPAP package is aligned with the Advanced Product Quality Planning (APQP) process used during the design and development of new vehicles and component systems to reduce the risk of unexpected failure due to errors in design and manufacture. Initially PPAP was utilized by the automotive and aerospace industries but is now being utilized by several industries to improve communication and provide quality products.

The PPAP requirements will be covered in ReliaTrain’s APQP training.

Suppliers are required to obtain PPAP approval from the vehicle manufacturers whenever a new or modified component is introduced to production, or the manufacturing process is changed. Obtaining approval requires the supplier to provide sample parts and documentary evidence showing that:

• The client's requirements have been understood
• The product supplied meets those requirements
• The process (including sub-suppliers) can produce conforming product
• The production control plan and quality management system will prevent non-conforming product from reaching the client or compromising the safety and reliability of finished vehicles

ReliaTrain provides experienced professionals that can provide the level of support required to complete your PPAP submission. Our professionals understand the core elements of PPAP and are experienced in the types of additional requirements many companies expect.

What is PPAP

PPAP defines the approval process for new or revised parts, or parts produced from new or significantly revised production methods. The PPAP process requirements can vary based on the customer but industry standards define the core elements required for approval of production level parts. The resulting PPAP submission provides the evidence that the supplier has met or exceeded the customer’s requirements and the process is capable of consistently reproducing quality parts.

Why Perform PPAP

The PPAP process verifies that the supplier understands all customer engineering design specifications and requirements, and that the process is capable of consistently producing product meeting those requirements during an actual production run at the quoted production rate.

When to Perform PPAP

A PPAP is required for any new part submission as well as for approval of any change to an existing part or process. The customer may request a PPAP at any time during the product life. This demands that the supplier must maintain a quality system that develops and documents all the requirements of a PPAP submission at any time.

How to Perform PPAP

The process of completing a PPAP submission is a detailed process that is a collection of key elements that must be completed to verify that the production process will produce a quality product. Every element is not always required for every submission. Requirements of the PPAP are usually negotiated during the quoting process. ReliaTrain experience will provide confidence the PPAP package is complete and correct based on the first submission.

PPAP Levels of Submission

The PPAP submission requirements are normally divided into five classifications or levels, as follows:

Level 1 – Part Submission Warrant (PSW) only submitted to the customer
Level 2 – PSW with product samples and limited supporting data
Level 3 – PSW with product samples and complete supporting data
Level 4 – PSW and other requirements as defined by the customer
Level 5 – PSW with product samples and complete supporting data available for review at the supplier’s manufacturing location

COURSE OBJECTIVES

ReliaTrain’s APQP training will provide an introduction and foundation of the Production Part Approval Process (PPAP). Mastering the content will improve product quality, reliability, and launch effectiveness. At the end of the course you should be able to:

⦁ Define the overall PPAP process and how it will benefit your organization
⦁ Define the quality expectations for the customer/supplier
⦁ Define what is required for PPAP Approval
⦁ Define how to make sure the part supplied meets product requirements
⦁ Define how your process, including sub-suppliers, are capable of producing conforming product to design specifications
⦁ Define how PPAP will enhance the production control plan and quality management system (QMS) to prevent non-conforming product from reaching the customer
⦁ Define the PPAP elements as they relate to the overall APQP process
⦁ Define the roles of both management and engineers within the Product Part Approval Process
⦁ Define the importance of the Audit process
⦁ Define how PPAP is associated with QMS and IATF-16949:2016

Elements of PPAP

Companies PPAP requirements can vary but below is the list of potential PPAP elements accompanied by a brief description for each element:

  1. Design Documentation (Records)
    • Design documentation shall include both a copy of the customer and the supplier’s drawings. The documentation should also include a copy of the purchase order. In some cases, the supplier is required to supply documentation of material composition.
      • The purchase order is used to confirm that the correct part is being ordered and that it is at the correct revision level.
      • The design engineer is responsible for verifying that the two drawings match and all critical or key characteristics have been identified.
      • Material composition information is required to supply evidence that the material used to manufacture the parts meets the customer’s specific requirements.
  1. Engineering Change Documentation
  • If the PPAP is being required due to a request for a change to a part or product, then, the documentation requesting and approving the change must be included in the PPAP package. This documentation usually consists of a copy of the Engineering Change Notice (ECN), which must be approved by the customer engineering department.
  1. Customer Engineering Approval
  • When required as part of the PPAP, the supplier must provide evidence of approval by the customer engineering department.
    • If required, pre-PPAP samples are ordered by the customer for onsite testing. The samples must be production intent and ship with a waiver so that testing can be done. When testing is complete, the test engineers will provide an approval form for inclusion in the PPAP submission.

Note: A copy of a “Temporary Deviation” is normally required to submit parts to the customer prior to a PPAP approval.

  1. Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
  • Design Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (DFMEA) is a cross-functional activity that examines design risk by exploring the possible failure modes and their effects on the product or customer, their probability to occur and the controls and actions defined to mitigate the risks. These failure modes can include:
    • Product not meeting functional requirements
    • Reduced performance or product life relative to design specifications
    • Safety and Regulatory issues
    • The DFMEA is a living document that should be reviewed and updated throughout the product life cycle.

ReliaTrain offers training and mentoring of the DFMEA process that will meet this requirement.

  1. Process Flow Diagram
    • The Process Flow Diagram (PFD) defines the entire process for manufacturing the component or final assembly in a detailed manner. The process flow includes incoming material, movement (and changeover) of material through the process, manufacturing, assembly, inspection, test, rework, scrap, and shipping. The PFD is the foundation of the manufacturing and assembly process. It defines the operation description and product and process characteristics.

ReliaTrain offers training and mentoring of the PFD process that will meet this requirement.

  1. Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
  • Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) is an analysis of every operation step in the production process, (dock to dock), to identify any potential risk of not delivering a product that meets defined product characteristics (potential product defect). The PFMEA also defines the process characteristics that must be controlled to ensure the product meets the product characteristics (potential process errors).  PFMEA is not complete until every potential process error is mitigated with either process controls and actions or recommended design changes. The PFMEA is also a living document and should be updated (with any process change) even after the product is in normal production. The PFMEA helps to define the critical characteristics that must be controlled to deliver a quality and reliable product.

ReliaTrain offers training and mentoring of the PFMEA process that will meet this requirement.

  1. Control Plan (PCP)
    • The Control Plan is linked with the output of the Process Flow Diagram and the PFMEA. The Control Plan connects the operation descriptions with the product and process characteristics (including Special Characteristics) and inspection methods required to deliver products that continually meet the customer quality requirements. The Control Plan explains what to do if the product or process does not meet specifications (Reaction Plan).

ReliaTrain offers training and mentoring in the PCP process that will meet this requirement.

  1. Measurement System Analysis Studies
  • MSA (Measurement System Analysis) Process is a structured method that defines and establishes steps necessary to ensure products meet requirements and customer expectations. Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) studies will include Gage Repeatability & Reproducibility (GR&R) studies on measurement equipment used during assembly or quality control checks. Calibration records for all gages and measurement equipment must be included.

ReliaTrain offers training and mentoring in MSA methodology that will meet this requirement.

  1. Dimensional Results
  • Dimensional layout of sample parts is required to validate that the product meets the print specifications. The samples should be randomly selected from a significant production run, usually at least 30 pieces. Each dimension on the drawing is measured on the final assembly to make sure that it falls within specification. The results are recorded in a spreadsheet and included in the PPAP submission.
  1. Records of Material / Performance Tests
    • This element should contain a copy of the Design Verification Plan and Report (DVP&R). The DVP&R is a summary of every validation test performed on the part. It should list each test performed; a description of how the test was performed with defined environmental conditions such as temperature range and vibration; and the results of each test.
    • This section may also include copies of all the certification documents for all materials (steel, plastics, etc.) listed on the prints. The material certification shall show compliance to the specific call on the print.

ReliaTrain offers training and mentoring of the DVP&R process that will meet this requirement.

  1. Initial Process Studies
  • The use of valid analytical statistical methods, Statistical Process Control (SPC), to identify the existence of special causes of variation in a process will be done on all the production processes. All processes have variation, it’s important to understand the type of variation (i.e., Common Cause or Special Cause). The intent is to demonstrate that critical processes are stable, demonstrate normal variation and are running near the intended nominal value. Knowing which variation directly impacts the strategy for problem solving and continuous improvement.

ReliaTrain offers training and mentoring in SPC methodology that will meet this requirement.

  1. Qualified Laboratory Documentation
  • Qualified laboratory documentation consists of the industry certifications for any lab that was involved in completing validation testing. This could be for an in-house test lab or any offsite contracted testing facility was used for validation or material certification testing.
  1. Appearance Approval Report
  • The Appearance Approval Inspection (AAI) is applicable for components affecting appearance only. This report verifies that the customer has inspected the final product and it meets all the required appearance specifications for the design. The appearance requirements could include information regarding the color, textures, etc.
  1. Sample Production Parts
    • Sample production parts are sent to the customer for approval and are typically stored at the customer or supplier’s site after the product development is completed. A picture of the production parts is usually included in the PPAP documentation along with documentation regarding the location where the parts are being stored.
  2. Master Sample
  • A master sample is a final sample of the product that is inspected and has been signed-off by the customer. The master sample part is used to train operators and serves as a benchmark for comparison to standard production parts if any part quality questions arise.
  1. Checking Aids
  • This is a detailed list of checking aids used by production. It should include all tools used to inspect, test, or measure parts during the assembly process. The list should describe the tool and have the calibration schedule for the tool. Checking aids may include check fixtures, contour, variable and attribute gages, models, or templates. MSA may be required for all checking aids based on customer requirements.

ReliaTrain offers training and mentoring in MSA methodology that will meet this requirement.

  1. Customer Specific Requirements
    • Each customer may have specific requirements to be included on the PPAP package. It is a good practice to ask the customer for PPAP expectations before even quoting for a job. North America automakers OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) requirements are listed on the IATF website. This element of the submission package is where any special customer requirements are contained. For bulk materials, the customer specific requirements shall be recorded on the “Bulk Material Requirements Checklist”.
  2. Part Submission Warrant

The Part Submission Warrant (PSW) is the form that summarizes the whole PPAP package. A PSW is required for each of part number unless otherwise stated by the customer. The PSW includes:

  • The reason for submission (design change, annual re-validation, etc.)
  • The level of documents submitted to the customer
  • Declaration of part conformity to customer requirements ("results meeting all drawing and specification requirements: yes/no" refers to the whole package.)
  • A section provided for any required explanation or comments
  • Supplier authorized person signature along with contact information
  • An area for the customer to indicate disposition of the PPAP. If there are any deviations, the supplier should note on the warrant or inform that PPAP cannot be submitted.

The PPAP process is a detailed and lengthy process. The PPAP package includes documentation of various multiple cross-functional tools and documents the ability of the supplier to meet all customer requirements. PPAP provides customers adequate information to validate that all areas of the design and production processes have been reviewed thoroughly to ensure that only high-quality products will be allowed to ship to the end-customer.

PPAP requirements are typically distinguished by level as follows:

Level 1 – Part Submission Warrant (PSW) only submitted to the customer
Level 2 – PSW with product samples and limited supporting data
Level 3 – PSW with product samples and complete supporting data
Level 4 – PSW and other requirements as defined by the customer
Level 5 – PSW with product samples and complete supporting data available for review at the supplier's manufacturing location

COURSE OUTLINE

Step 6 of ReliaTrain’s APQP Training

APQP is a structured method that defines and establishes steps necessary to ensure supplier parts meet the customer requirements and expectations. APQP supports organizations quality management system (QMS) and continuous improvement of product and process quality and reliability. An element of APQP is defining the PPAP requirements for suppliers.

APQP and PPAP are focused on communication, quality planning, demonstration of management support, and cooperation between the customer and the supplier. The benefits of APQP and PPAP include directing resources into early identification of required changes; avoidance of late changes; and developing and delivering a quality product on time at the lowest cost. Understanding and implementing APQP and PPAP processes reinforce an organizations ability to meet ISO-9001:2015 and IATF-16949:2016 requirements.

PPAP course requirements are covered in ReliaTrain’s APQP training:

1. Prepare for APQP
2. Plan and Define Program
3. Product Design and Development
4. Process Design and Development
5. Product and Process Validation
6. Feedback, Assessment, and Corrective Action

Step 6 of the APQP/PPAP training will cover all PPAP requirements. Participants will learn when and why the APQP quality tools are completed and how the information supports the PPAP submission requirements.

At the end of the training, the participant will be required to take quizzes that test proficiency and complete a course survey based on the course material and the instructor. ReliaTrain uses the results of the quizzes and surveys to update the training to provide the best experience to participants.

COURSE PREREQUISITES

This is a Level One foundation training module and does not have required prerequisite training or experience. However, this course is a Prerequisite for higher level (Competency, Proficient, and Expert) FMEA Certification.

COURSE RECOMMENDED PARTICIPANTS

This course is intended for management and engineers in areas of design, manufacturing, assembly, quality, service, packaging, material handling, FMEA facilitators, and supplier quality (Including Suppliers).

The APQP and PPAP training program is intended for all industries including but not limited to:

Commercial
Medical
Utilities
Aerospace
Consumer Lifestyle Products
Civil Engineering
Tooling and Equipment
Oil and Gas
Trains & Railroad Equipment
Military [DOD]
Government
Phones & Personal Devices

Learn More About PPAP

ReliaTrain offers mentoring, facilitation, and training support for Product and Process Development based on Quality and Reliability industry standards. ReliaTrain provides step-by-step methodologies that can be tailored to your organizational requirements. Let ReliaTrain experts support the implementation of PPAP at your company and suppliers.

Contact us to learn more about PPAP